Egypt

Well-educated women who live in the cities live in relative equality, while women in other parts of the country are not even allowed to leave their homes without the permission of their husband or family.

Egypt is currently experiencing a period of dramatic political change and was not previously a homogenous country. Well-educated women who live in the cities live in relative equality, while women in other parts of the country are not even allowed to leave their homes without the permission of their husband or family.  The majority of women are controlled by written and unwritten rules which restrict their freedom of movement. 

Population: 82 million

Religions: Islam 94%, Christianity and other 6 %

Life expectancy: men 68 years, women 73 years (2011)

Literacy rate: total population 71%; men 83%, women 59%

Income inequality: Gini coefficient 0.344 (2001) * 

Ranking on the Transparency International list of Corruption Perceptions in 183 countries: 112 (2011) **

Ranking on the UNDP Human Development Index of 146 countries, taking gender equality into account: no information. ***

Maternal deaths: 43 deaths per l00,000 births.

Number of children/woman: 2.97 (estimate for 2011)

Abortion legislation: Abortion is not legal. It is only allowed if the mother’s life is at risk. Very restrictive application. 

Law against rape within marriage: No

Violence against women in close relationships: Two women are raped every hour.  Only 12 per cent of 2,500 incidents of sexual harassment were reported to the police. 

 

* Gini coefficient:
An economic metric of the inequality seen in a population in, for example, income distribution. The Gini coefficient has a value of between  0 and 1, where 0 implies that the value of assets for each individual is exactly the same (total equality) while 1 represents total inequality. The lower the Gini coefficient for income, the greater the equality in the distribution of salary, profits, welfare benefits and other compensation.  

** Corruption:
In 2011, Transparency International ranked183 countries according to how widespread corruption was. Position 1 on the list showed the country where corruption was least widespread, position 183 the greatest. Corruption within, for example, the police and judiciary systems, has a noticeable impact on the lives of the women.

*** Gender equality:
Every year, the United Nations Development Programme, UNDP, measures human development in the world’s countries taking into account health, education and income, in the Human Development Index, HDI. In 2010 a new index was introduced: GII, Gender Inequality Index, which also takes gender equality into account. The countries are ranked from position 1 downwards.  

 

Sources:

Swedish Institute of International Affairs
Center for Reproductive Rights
CIA World Factbook
Transparency International
UNDP HDI2011
UNDP HDR2011
Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation
Amnesty International