Mexico

Many well-educated women in the cities live in relative equality, while women in other parts of the country are controlled by written and unwritten rules that restrict their freedom of movement. Mexico is a country characterised by violence, largely due to the drug trade.

Mexico is not a homogenous country. Many well-educated women in the cities live in relative equality, while women in other parts of the country are controlled by written and unwritten rules that restrict their freedom of movement. There are national (federal) laws, but most of the legislation is state legislation and varies considerably among the 32 states (31 states and 1 federal district). Mexico is a country characterised by violence, largely due to the drug trade. Even though the violence mainly affects young men, many women are also killed and injured.  

Population: 112.3 million (2010)

Religions: Christianity (Roman Catholic 88%) 

Life expectancy: Men 73 years, women 78 years (2011)

Literacy rate: 93% (2010) 

Income inequality: Gini coefficient 0.460 (2010) *

Ranking on the Transparency International list of Corruption Perceptions in 183 countries: 100 (2011) **

Ranking on the UNDP Human Development Index of 146 countries, taking gender equality into account: 79 (2011) ***

Maternal deaths: 51 deaths per 100,000 births. 

Number of children/woman: 2.3 (2010)

Abortion legislation: Varies greatly from state to state. In Mexico City, a woman has the right to abortion until the 12th week of pregnancy, while in the states of Guanajuato and Querétaro abortion is punishable by 30 years’ imprisonment. ****

Law against rape within marriage: Yes

Violence against women in close relationships: Every third woman in Mexico is, or has been, subjected to violence in a close relationship.

 

* Gini coefficient:
An economic metric of inequality in a population, for example in income distribution. The Gini coefficient has a value of between 0 and 1, where 0 implies that the assets of all individuals are exactly the same (total equality) while 1 represents total inequality. The lower the Gini coefficient for income inequality, the greater the equality of distribution of salaries, profits, welfare benefits and other forms of compensation. 

** Corruption:
In 2011, Transparency International ranked 183 countries according to how widespread corruption was in the country. Position 1 on the list showed the country where corruption was least widespread, position 183 the greatest. Corruption within, for example, the police and justice systems has a marked influence on women’s lives.

*** Equality:
Every year, the United Nations Development Programme, UNDP, measures human development in the world’s countries taking into account health, education and income, in the Human Development Index, HDI. In 2010 a new index was introduced: GII, Gender Inequality Index, which also takes gender equality into account. The countries are ranked from position 1 downwards.

**** Abortion legislation in Mexico:

Since 1997, women in Mexico City, home to 7 per cent of the country’s population, have had the right to abortion up to the 12th week of pregnancy. Women living in other states also have the right to have an abortion in Mexico City. In the state of Yucatán, abortion is legal on economic grounds if the woman already has three children.

In theory abortion is legal after rape, but in some states, such as Guanajuato, where it is punishable by 30 years’ imprisonment, it is not practically possible.

Grupo de Información en Reproducción Elegida, GIRE, has produced an overview of the legislation in the various states. It shows, among other things, that in some states neither a danger to the mother’s life nor severe abnormalities of the foetus are considered reasons for impunity for abortion.

http://www.gire.org.mx/contenido.php?informacion=31

 

Sources:

Swedish Institute of International Affairs
National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics
CIA World Factbook
Transparency International
UNDP HDI2011
UNDP HDR2011
Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation
Rincondelvago.com