Russia

Well-educated women in the cities live in relative equality. In reality, however, Russian society as a whole is characterised by traditional gender roles and perceptions, such as that women are responsible for the children and the family.

Russia is an equal society in terms of legislation. Well-educated women in the cities live in relative equality. In reality, however, Russian society as a whole is characterised by traditional gender roles and perceptions, such as that women are responsible for the children and the family.  

Population: 141 million (2010)

Religions: Christianity approx. 80 %, mainly Russian Orthodox; other religions include Islam, Buddhism, and Judaism

Life expectancy: Men 59 years, women 73 years (2011)

Literacy rate: Almost l00 % 

Income inequality: Gini coefficient 0.422 (2009) * 

Ranking on the Transparency International list of Corruption Perceptions in 183 countries: 143 (2011) **

Ranking on the UNDP Human Development Index of 146 countries, taking gender equality into account: 59 (2011) *** 

Maternal deaths: 34 deaths per l00,000 births (2008)

Number of children/woman: 1.42

Abortion legislation: Right to abortion

Law against rape within marriage: No

Violence against women in close relationships: Violence in the home is the cause of two thirds of all murders in Russia. It is estimated that 34,000 women are subjected to violence in the home each year. 60-70 per cent of these victims do not report the abuse, mainly because previous attempts to report it have failed. 

 

* Gini coefficient:
An economic metric of inequality in a population, for example in income distribution. The Gini coefficient has a value of between 0 and 1, where 0 implies that the assets of all individuals are exactly the same (total equality) while 1 represents total inequality. The lower the Gini coefficient for income inequality, the greater the equality of distribution of salaries, profits, welfare benefits and other forms of compensation. 

** Corruption:
In 2011, Transparency International ranked 183 countries according to how widespread corruption was in the country. Position 1 on the list showed the country where corruption was least widespread, position 183 the greatest. Corruption within, for example, the police and justice systems has a marked influence on women’s lives.

*** Equality:
Every year, the United Nations Development Programme, UNDP, measures human development in the world’s countries taking into account health, education and income, in the Human Development Index, HDI. In 2010 a new index was introduced: GII, Gender Inequality Index, which also takes gender equality into account. The countries are ranked from position 1 downwards.

 

Sources:

Swedish Institute of International Affairs
CIA World Factbook
Center for Reproductive Rights
Transparency International
UNDP HDI 2011
UNDP HDR2011
Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation
Ministry for Foreign Affairs’ reports on human rights